DAM & WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
A. DEPRECIATION OF WATER FOR FULFILLING REQUIREMENTS OF INTEGRATION OF PADDY TWICE PER YEAR
MADA manages and manages three (3) dam units namely Pedu, Muda and Ahning Dam. This responsibility is to ensure that the emission of water from the dam is consistent to ensure that rice crops twice a year in the Muda Area can be carried out and will increase the yield of rice for the needs of the country. In addition to the water supply for irrigation in the Muda Area, water released from the dam is also for domestic and industrial use in the Northern Kedah, Perlis Selatan and Langkawi Island areas. To ensure the sustainability and sustainability of the dam water resources, it is MADA’s responsibility to manage the lake and catchment area more efficiently.
In 2016, the El Nino phenomenon hit the country. The apparent effect of this phenomenon is the lack of rainfall and dry weather. Muda areas receive low rainfall and dry weather throughout the year. The catchment area for the three dams is also in the same situation.
The effect of this change in the weather causes the quantity of water discharge for irrigation and domestic demand from the three dams to increase over the previous year. Whereas the quantity of inflow of the three dams also decreases significantly.
The Pedu dam, which is the main source of irrigation supply for paddy crops in Muda Region, recorded the lowest level of 271.86 ft MSL (31.5% reservoir) on July 18, 2016. This is the lowest record in 11 years. By the end of 2016, the Pedu Dam reservoir was able to hold 46%.
Given the critical reservoir situation, MADA has taken proactive measures to introduce a dry-hold campaign for Season I / 2017.
Following the request by the Kedah State Government, the MADA has been discharged through the 33Mm3 Water Dam to provide water for the Sungai Muda basin in April and May 2016 for domestic needs. This allows all SADA Water Treatment Plant located along Sungai Muda to operate without interruption.
During the year 2016 the quantity of water discharge from the Pedu Dam is 1067Mm 3 while the inflow to the Pond pool is 577Mm3. The comparison is like the chart below:
The quantity of water emission from the Ahning Dam is as much as 149Mm3 while the inflow of the Pedu reservoir is 74Mm3. This comparison is like the chart below:
Meanwhile, the release from the Muda Dam is as much as 33Mm3 and the quantity of inflow into the Muda reservoir pool during 2016 is 74Mm3. This comparison is as follows:
Based on the total quantity of water discharges of 1249Mm3 from Pedu, Muda and Ahning Dam for 2016, MADA has succeeded in ensuring that water discharges from the dam are consistent to ensure twice a year of paddy crops can be carried out at Muda Area as well as raw water supply for domestic and industry in Northern Kedah, southern Perlis and Langkawi Island can be fulfilled. Of the emission quantities, 1067Mm3 is for the irrigation needs of the Muda Regions, while 182Mm3 is for domestic and industrial use. The details of the quantity of water discharge in 2016 are as follows:
In 2016, the maximum and minimum reservoir volume for the Pedu reservoir pool is shown below:
In 2016, the maximum and minimum reservoir volume for the Ahning reservoir is as follows:
In 2016, the maximum and minimum reservoir volume for the Muda reservoir pond is as shown in the chart:
B. WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (CLOUD SEEDING)
The OPA between MADA and the Malaysian Meterorlogy Department (MCMC) within the catchment area is one of the proactive steps taken to increase the volume of reservoir for the successful cultivation of rice in Muda Area.
Based on the records, the OPA for artificial rain derivatives has been implemented in the Pedu and Muda Dam catchment area since 1978. The OPA was carried out in collaboration with the Department of Weather (at that time) and was found to have helped increase the volume of water reservoirs in the three dams.
Throughout 2016, the Malaysian Meteorological Department (JMM) conducted the OPA using hygroscopic flares for three (3) operations from April 2016 to November 2016. The first OPA from April 13, 2016 to May 25, 2016, the second OPA starting Aug 29 2016 until September 8, 2016 and 3rd out-of-date OPA from 11 November 2016 until 17 November 2016.
As a result of the first OPA, several MADA dam areas, such as the Pedu, Muda and Ahinng Dam, have been subject to rain for 16 days along the OPA and have led to an increase in reservoir levels. However, the reservoir level is still below 50% due to the water discharge operation undertaken to meet the supply demand for paddy planting Season 1/2016.
As a result of the second OPA, several MADA dam reservoirs such as Pedu, Muda and Ahning Dam have been subjected to rain for 9 days. However, the decreased rainfall rate is very low where the dam reservoir level is still below 50%. As a result of the third time OPA, the Pedu Dam reservoir level has increased by 0.10%, the Muda Dam 7.14% and the Ahning Dam 0.12% equivalent to 10,120 acres. The MADA party also provided a provision for the operating cost of RM119,606.16.
This increase is still low due to rainfall derivatives depending on cloud conditions, air humidity and wind movement during the OPA. This situation is also affected by the phenomenon of El-Nino being struck. Wind movements have affected rainfall patterns over catchment areas resulting in low rainfall in catchment areas. As such, the OPA needs to be continued until the effectiveness and improvement of the level of the reservoir can be achieved.