IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE SERVICES PROGRAM
Throughout 2016, the Division of Irrigation and Drainage Services has provided irrigation and drainage services to the MADA region as in previous years.
A. ACTIVITIES OF PADDY PLANT SEASON 2/2015 AND SEASON 1/2016
In ensuring the sustainability of paddy cultivation industry in Muda area, the management and supervision of irrigation services as well as the development of data collection (irrigation and agriculture) systems are especially emphasized by the Division (Irrigation and Drainage Service Division) to enable water management to be more accurate, efficient and effective.
This is in line with its main function to provide all irrigation and drainage services to MADA in ensuring the continuity of paddy cultivation two (2) times a year in the Muda Area.
To achieve that goal, one of the actions taken is to plan, settle (with the farmer) and implement the paddy planting schedule before the start of a season (First Season – Feb / March; Second Season – July / August) every year. With the paddy planting schedule, water can be provided efficiently and regularly according to the paddy cultivation phase as well as paddy growth stage (as required by paddy growth).
In planning to determine the paddy planting schedule for the first season in Muda Region, several factors need to be taken into account: reservoir reservoir position, water source prediction, past season’s seasonal performance forecasts and several other factors.
Paddy planting season 2/2015
Following the Meeting of the Water Supply and Paddy Plantation Committee Meeting (MJBAPP) Headquarters held on 7 August 2015, taking into account the reservoir reservoir position, the annual water source condition forecast and other important aspects, the MADA Level MJBAPP held on September 10 2015 has decided that the paddy cultivaton Season 2/2015 is as follows:
Plans for the paddy plantation in Muda can be shown as below:
Paddy Plantation Timetable Season 1/2016
Following the Meeting of the Water and Paddy Plantation Committee Meeting (MJBAPP) Headquarters held on 13 January 2016, after taking into account the reservoir reservoir position, the prediction of the annual water source situation and other important aspects, the MADA Level MJBAPP held on 21 February 2016 has decided the Paddy Plantation Season 1/2016 is as follows:
Plans for the Paddy Plantation in Muda area can be shown as chart below:
Pre-Season Preparations 2/2015 and Season 1/2016
To enable the implementation of paddy planting of Season 2/2015 and Season1 / 2016 various activities were conducted at all levels with the aim of ensuring paddy and irrigation and irrigation activities can be done smoothly without any problems.
The operation of saline water into drainage is a step taken to minimize the gold ghost snail attack. This operation was conducted by the Irrigation and Drainage Service Division. The operation was held from 14 to 29 February 2016 which is between the season shortly after completion of Season 2/2015.
The location of this operation is from Tandop Ampang Jajar at MADA Headquarters to Johor Coast (Sungai Anak Bukit) and Tanjung Bendahara (Sungai Kedah). As a result of this operation, the quantity of snails and calamity trees decreased within the trenches. In terms of improved river water quality from Class IV to Class II and social impacts can be seen with a positive and positive response from farmers and the public.
In addition, secondary secondary trench and trench cleaning works are carried out in the Territories as well as to work on the canals in ensuring the smooth running of irrigation activities in the Muda Regions. The Regional Office undertakes secondary and secondary drainage works in accordance with the specifications set out in the MADA quality procedure which is 3 times the frequency per annum for secondary irrigation and 4 times per year for drainage drains. For irrigation and ditch through the routine protocol path that has been implemented 6 times a year.
For the preparation of Season 2/2015 and Season 1/2016, the Jerlus Land Rehabilitation Program has been completed for 8,107 hectares of land with a ravine area and the entry of MADA Suburbs as a Muda Territory of 4,127 hectares has commenced in 2015. Hence, the total area The whole youth who will carry out paddy planting activities Season 2/2015 and Season 1/2016 are 100,685 hectares.
Paddy Plant Activities
Perfect land operation is the basis of uniform seed harvesting and can reduce the growth of weeds. Irrigation irrigation will also be uniform and according to the water supply requested by the Regions. Wet land use (plow) is normally practiced by farmers in the Muda Regions.
Land operation activities for Season 2/2015 began on September 16, 2015 with a forecast. Overall, the whole of the Muda Regions conducts more proactive and faster-than-expected land preparation activities from the first week of the season, September 23, 2016. A significant amount of rain at the beginning of the season has resulted in the activity with most of the farmers in the Muda Regions making land preparation during that period .
For Season 1/2016 it began on February 24, 2016 compared to forecasts on March 2, 2016. In total, there was a delay in land preparation activities at the start of the season between April and May due to the exceptionally dry weather factor (Super El- Nino) where most of the fields are dry and not easy to plow and all areas begin simultaneous activities resulting in a defective machine hijacker that can be used. However, this activity reached its peak in May 2016, where water supplies could be channeled to all dryland areas and most of the farmers in the Muda Region made land preparation during the period.
For Season 2/2015, the wet rotating method becomes the main practice of farmers in the preparation of the land as it is normally seasoned by rain and the farmers are more likely to run wet soils.
However, wet spin method for Season 1/2016 is still the main practice of farmers in the preparation of land with 50.7% of the area (51,090 hectares) of the whole Muda Area carrying out this method.
However, the practice of dry rotation method is almost equal to the wet rotation method with a percentage of 49.2% (49,537 hectares) of the area carrying out this method. This is because farmers in the affected areas take the initiative to provide land (by rotating dry) without waiting for water to be supplied (on schedule) in expediting their activities.
Plant Methods During Season 2/2015 and Season 1/2016
Paddy cultivation for Season 2/2015 begins on September 23, 2015 and reaches its peak on October 28, 2015 where 66% (66,703 hectares) of the entire Muda Regions have been planted. Compared with planned activities, the actual achievement of paddy cultivation activities is very good and faster than forecasts with farmers very eager to carry out planting according to the schedule set after their area of land has been restored from the problem of drowning soil.
The crop method for Season 2/2015 can be summarized as follows:
Based on the chart above, the practice of sipping continues to be the main practice of the farmers in the Muda Regions for the Season 2/2015.
For Season 1/2016, paddy cultivation starts on April 27, 2016 and reaches its peak on May 25, 2016 where 70% (70,081 hectares) of the entire Muda Regions have been planted. Compared with planned activities, the actual achievement of paddy cultivation activities was very good and according to forecasts, however, at the start of the planting there was a slight delay as the preliminary performance was relatively slow due to Super El-Nino’s extremely dry weather events.
Agronomic Practices for Season 1/2016 can be summarized as per the charts listed below:
Based on the chart above, Season 1/2016 saw the practice of wet-saturating practices still being the main practice of farmers in the Muda Regions.
Paddy Plant Density
During Season 2/2015 and Season 1/2016 Season 2/2015 saw a total of 100,636 hectares of the entire Muda Regions (100,685 hectares) successfully planted with seasonal density of 99.9%. A total of 49 hectares of land can not be planted in Phase II and III regions of Region I, Perlis, Region II, Jitra and WIlayah III, Pendang.
For Season 1/2016 saw a total of 100,602 hectares of the entire Muda Regions (100,685 hectares) successfully planted with seasonal density of 99.9%. A total of 83 hectares of land can not be planted ie Phase I and II, Region I, Perlis and WIlayah III, Pendang.
Among the main problems that caused paddy cultivation to be unsuccessful in the area was due to the problem of soil, change of land use from agricultural land to development land and land title problem, which is the process of land wills to farmers’ children.
Progress of Paddy / Harvesting Activity throughout Season 2/2015 and Season 1/2016
Overall, throughout the Season 2/2015 the progress of paddy cultivation activities has shown encouraging progress with farmers following a set schedule where actual progress is similar to the analyzes analyzed. The existing water source factor, which is a lot of rainfall at the beginning of the season, has played a role in compliance with the progress of paddy cultivation activities. The status of the three dams in the Muda Regions at a comfortable level with the Pedu Dam has 86% reservoir (752,810 acres), the Muda Dam has a reservoir of 82.5% reservoir (103,080 acres) and Ahning Dam has 81.4% reservoir (181,527 acres ) at the start of the season, September 28, 2015. However, there is a delay in paddy cultivation activities for Season 1/2016 in the Muda Regions which is later than one week from the date of supply in the Paddy Planting Schedule, this is due to incredible dry weather events (Super El- Nino). Most reservoirs in Malaysia at that time, at a critical stage. Beris Dam has a critical reservoir at that point where water can not be released to irrigate the South Kedah area. Nevertheless, the three dams in the Muda Area are still at a comfortable level. At the beginning of the season, March 23, 2016, Pedu Dam has 84.5% reservoir (739,680 acres), the Muda Dam has reservoirs of 33.2% reservoir (41,530 acres) and Ahning Dam has 80.8% reservoir (222,070 acres).
The percentage of planting activity in Muda Region reached 90% in the 8th week (November 11, 2015) compared to forecasts on 2 December 2015, witnessing the farmers committed in carrying out paddy cultivation activities on schedule set for Season 2/2015.
For Season 1/2016, the percentage of planting activity in Muda Region has reached 90% in the 10th week (June 1, 2016) compared to forecasts on June 8, 2016, seeing the farmers committed in carrying out paddy cultivation activities on schedule. Due to incredible dry weather events (Super El- Nino) throughout the growing season, there was a delay at the beginning of planting due to the difficulty of achieving the preliminary set in the designated period.
Campaign efforts organized by the Jom Turun Bendang Program Season 1/2016, ‘Mobile Unit’ by the Region and delivery through Friday sermon was conducted and presented as a warning and reminders to farmers to accelerate paddy cultivation activities.
The entire area planted in Season 2/2015 was successfully harvested on the 23rd week (24th February 2016) compared to the forecast on March 30, 2016. However, the floods that took place in October 2015 where at that time the red flood was raging in the east coast area affecting harvesting activities for Season 2/2015 as the rain descends according to the growth of paddy that needs water. The entire planted area was successfully harvested on week 26 (September 21, 2016) compared to forecasts on October 5, 2016. However, floods that occurred in July 2016 did not affect harvesting activities for Season 1/2016 due to large tides that resulted in the area paddy submerged near the shore where many rain water can not be drained out to sea. However, the area involved is only 1.338 hectares with paddy age between 20 – 100 days in Region III, Pendang and Region IV, Kota Sarang Semut.
Hydrology and Water Management
In the face of the challenges of water resource instability, efficient and effective management is important in ensuring the continuity of the implementation of paddy crops two (2) times a year that directly raises yields. Irrigation water management includes the distribution, coordination and monitoring of water resources (rainfall, dam supplies, uncontrolled flows, reuse pumping operations) in Muda Area.
Water Resources Season 2/2015
The water source for Season 2/2015 (September – February) can be summarized as follows:
Based on the chart, for Season 1/2016 Muda Areas optimize the recorded offspring of 56%. This is due to the heavy rainfall events that have fallen during the season to enable farmers to carry out their activities (re-establishing water after planting and land preparation) as well as the suitability of paddy growing in need of water.
Water Resources Season 1/2016
Water source for Season 1/2016 (March – August) can be summarized as follows:
On the basis of the chart, it was found that the use of recharge pump for Season 1/2016 was very high recorded at 14% compared to an average of 8%. This is due to the incredible drought and extreme dry weather (Super El-Nino) this season especially at the start of the season where MADA had to release water from the dam and maximize the use of pumps to enable farmers to carry out their activities ( retaining water after sowing and land preparation).
Efficiency of Water Resources
The table below shows the number of water resources / uses in Muda Areas for Season 2/2015 and 1/2016.
The efficiency of water resources is a comparison of the water requirement for plants with the amount of water resources / use for paddy cultivation purposes.
The efficiency of water use in 2016 was 65%.
In conclusion, paddy cultivation for the year 2016 can be successfully carried out. The density of plants in the Muda Regions for this season is 99.9% with the majority of farmers using MR 220 CL2 varieties. The average gross revenue for 2016 is 6.20 tonnes per hectare.
Throughout 2016, the water management has been effective and efficient. The MADA managed to optimize existing water resources to implement and sustain paddy cultivation activities for 2016 despite the incidence of Super El-Nino and the Extra-Flood Sea and floods throughout 2016.